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February 17 イヴの創造とアダムの肋骨と横隔膜(序) [思いつき]

February 17, 2009 (Tuesday) 

   去年の9月にサンフランシスコの古本市で買った本のなかに Elémire Zolla という(エミール・ゾラではない)ひとの The Androgyne: Reconciliation of Male and Female (New York: Crososroad, 1981) という両性具有のイメージを探究した本があって、どこかでとりあげようと思っていたのがその中に載っていた14世紀イタリアの Bartolo di Fredi のフレスコ画でした。

  本は "The Illustrated Library of Sacred Imagination" という全体の編者を Jill Purce とするシリーズの1冊で、Zen をAnne Bancroft が書いていたりする。多数の図版とその解説というかたちで進んでいく、体裁で、前に言及したThames & Hudson/Avon の Tree of Life と同じタイプ〔「October 31 エリアーデのいう中心のシンボリズム The Symbolism of the Center as Described by Mircea Eliade」参照〕。それでわかったのだけれど、平凡社の『イメージの博物誌』という翻訳シリーズは、海外のいくつかの同種のシリーズをあわせたものだったのね。つうか、1990年代半ばにも出ていたとは知りませんでした・・・・・・

  別の検索をかけたら、この本の訳も1988年に出ていました(がっくし)。

41D39FYRGKL__SL500_AA240_.jpg

  

  ともあれ、教会堂の壁画の一部を成しているフレスコ画は次のような不思議な絵です――

CreationofEve_BartolodiFredi(Italy,14c).jpg
The Creation of Eve, fresco by Bartolo di Fredi, Italy, 14th c.

  これは字義どおりに聖書を解釈しているとかなんたらいうコメントを全然別の場所で読んだことがありますが、聖書の創世記第2章が述べているのは以下のような、天地創造後に一休みしたあとで、土の塵から人間(アダム)をつくって生命の息を吹き込んで生きる魂にし(7節)、彼をエデンの庭師にして、でも生命の木と対になる善悪の木の実だけは食っちゃだめだぞ、食ったら死んじゃうから、と言ったあとふいに、ひとりじゃさみしかろうて、とあれやこれやの生き物をつくり、それにアダムは名前をつけ、それでも助けが足りないとアダムがいうので、神はアダムを眠らせている(これが麻酔の最初だという説があります。催眠の最初かもw)あいだにアダムの肋骨を一個とって、そのあとの肉を埋め、とりだした肋骨を女とする(下の欽定訳聖書の英語の語順をかえると、 he made the rib a woman というSVOC のかたち)、いわゆる「アダムの肋骨」からの女性創造の話です。

  だから、字義どおりというのではないと思う。だって脇腹からモロに生まれているから。

  そして、あれこれ調べてみると、同種の絵はかなりの数あるのでした。

1: Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
2: And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
3: And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.
4: These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens,
5: And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.
6: But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.
7: And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
8: And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.
9: And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
10: And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.
11: The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;
12: And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.
13: And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.
14: And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.
15: And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
16: And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:
17: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
18: And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.
19: And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.
20: And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.
21: And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;
22: And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.
23: And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.
24: Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
25: And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.

  ここで、思いつきです。肋骨ってフレノロジー (= science of mind) のフレノ=横隔膜と関係しているということはないのだろうか。

  「横隔膜が動かなくなると、内臓も動かなくなる。 横隔膜は、肋骨の下側を全て覆う形に付いている筋肉で、深呼吸するための筋肉である。 横隔膜の上には、心臓と肺が、下側には、肝臓、胃、膵臓、脾臓、大腸などが隣接している。」(『キュアハウスな一日』「胸の苦しみ」2009.1.5 <http://blog.livedoor.jp/curehouse/tag/%B8%C6%B5%DB>)

  とりわけ息 breath, breath of life と関係しているということはないのだろうか。

  ということでこれからヒマを見つけてワキの甘い空論を唱えてみたいという気がしています。

  ちなみに、エレミール・ゾラは、もちろんこれをまずは両性具有の喪失のドラマと読むわけですが、男女のジェンダーにどのように「性差」が分与されるかについて、こんなふうに書いています。(参考のために長めにメモっておきます)――

Adam was plunged into a swoon (compare the myth of Narcissus, the Swooner, on p. 20), and the first fall took place with the loss of androgyny.  In Christian symbolism the extraction of Eve from Adam's side is usually shown as the work of God the Son, of the Word which is the discerner of hearts, the principle of division itself, 'sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow' (Hebrews 4: 12).  Eve was interpreted as the soul, the life of the senses, and a now diminished Adam as will and reason, the spirit.  The only remanining link between them after the fall was imagination.  They would imagine each other as their respective needs, so in order to tempt them to their second fall, Satan became a serpent, which St. Augustine interpreted as imagination incarnate.  To redress all this, the Son or Word was said to have entered into the womb of a daughter of Eve (whom he had originally extracted from Adam's side), in order to be born of her as a New Adam, a 'First-Engendered', yet born of woman.  The womanliness in man could now participate in the mystery of God's incarnation through identification with the model for womanhood, who was daughter of her son, mother of her father and virgin wife of both.  All family ties, the strongest, or at least stable, emotional forces in man, were evoked and trebled, made bewildering by paradox and associated with these basic theological conceptions.  This kind of 'divine' family romance was concocted by ecclesiastical institutions to secure strong emotional appeal.  However, imagining onself living through it led to the inner restoration of the emotional and rational completeness of, and total participation in, lost androgyny.  (Pp. 40-41)

   アカの前のところでは、キリスト教のシンボリズムでは、子なる神、つまりイエスの業として、イヴのアダムのワキからの摘出が描かれてきたと書かれています。エホヴァじゃなくてイエスが創世記にあらわれてしまうのですか(Lord God=Lordで一体ということですか)。

   赤字部には異論があるのですが(逆じゃないの、みたいなw)、しかしその後のヘビの知恵の問題とか考えるとなかなかむつかしいような、そして、どうころんでも性差別が生じるような。ということで、これは男女の霊性問題の序でした。(なんか思いつきの横隔膜のほうへは進展しないような気がします。)

//////////////////////

( ..)φメモメモ的に

「ミケランジェロが『アダムの創造』に描いたものとは」 X51.ORG <http://x51.org/x/04/01/1327.php> 〔脳解剖学的図像学 2004.1.13。当然ミケはイヴの創造も描いています〕

アダムとイヴ - Wikipedia

横隔膜 - Wikipedia

Genesis, from The holy Bible, King Jamesversion <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=KjvGene.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=2&division=div1> 〔Virginia 大学の英訳聖書 e-text〕


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